What is Competitive Intelligence?

CI – Competitive Intelligence Competitive intelligence (CI) has something of an image problem. The term conjures up an image of elicit activities involving private detectives, telephoto lenses and hidden microphones. While such images are not completely unappealing, they are far removed from the truth. Put simply, CI is a structured, ethical and legal process designed […]

Protection of People

Often the most vulnerable aspect of your enterprise is not your technology systems, instead it’s the weaknesses introduced by staff that are often the hardest to find yet the most harmful. Your staff might be simply unaware of what their security obligations are, or they might be complacent about security controls or internal procedures because […]

Managerial Support Systems

Managerial support systems are the topic of this second of three chapters devoted to our survey of information technology (IT) application areas. Managerial support systems are designed to provide support to a specific manager or a small group of managers, and they include applications to support managerial decision making such as group support systems, executive […]

Back-Up Your Data

Backing up is a way to protect your sensitive data when a failure happens to your computing device. It is essential to have at least three copies of your data off-site and to protect these copies with a password so you can retrieve your important data in the case of system failure, virus attack, or […]

What Is an IP Address?

An Internet Protocol address is a unique address that computing devices such as PCs, tablets, smartphones, or anything that can connect to the Internet use to identify themselves and communicate with other devices in the IP network. No two devices can have the same IP address on the same IP network. You can describe the […]

Types of Cyber Attacks

Types of AttacksCyber-attacks come in two main forms: passive attacks and active attacks. Passive Attack In a passive attack, an intruder monitors a system and network communications and scans for open ports and other vulnerabilities (for example, an unpatched system). The intruder will try to collect as much information as he or she can to […]


Enterprise systems are one of the most complex and powerful information systems in use today. ARCHITECTURE OF ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS The architecture of an enterprise system refers to the technical structure of the software, the ways that users interact with the software, and the ways the software is physically managed on computer hardware. Most modern ES […]


The functional structure served organizations well for a number of years because it enabled them to cope with the challenges generated by their rapid growth. Over time, however, this system developed a serious drawback. Put The Functional Organizational Structure 3 simply, people in the different functional areas came to perform their steps in the process […]


Organizations that utilize a functional structure are divided into functions, or departments, each of which is responsible for a set of closely related activities. For example, the accounting department sends and receives payments, and the warehouse receives and ships materials. Typical functions or departments found in a modern organization include purchasing, operations, warehouse, sales and […]